Common Mistakes in English 35
اشتباهات رایج در زبان انگلیسی ۳۵
در این پست در مورد واژه “Take” به معنی “گرفتن” یا “برداشتن” چند نکته ای را خدمت شما ارائه می کنم که امیدوارم برای شما مفید باشد و بتواند به درک بیشتر این واژه در ذهن شما کمک کند.
نکته اول در مورد این واژه این است که این لغت از لحاظ گرامری دارای ۲ نقش فعل و اسم می باشد. معنی Take در دیکشنری چنین بیان شده است:
She took his hand: LAY HOLD OF, get hold of; grasp, grip, clasp, clutch, grab.
he took an envelope from his pocket: REMOVE, pull, draw, withdraw, extract, fish.
a passage taken from my book: EXTRACT, quote, cite, excerpt, derive, abstract, copy, cull.
she took a little wine: DRINK, imbibe; consume, swallow, eat, ingest.
many prisoners were taken: CAPTURE, seize, catch, arrest, apprehend, take into custody; carry off, abduct.
someone’s taken my car: STEAL, remove, appropriate, make off with, pilfer, purloin; informal filch, swipe, snaffle; Brit. informal pinch, nick.
take four from the total: SUBTRACT, deduct, remove; discount; informal knock off, minus.
all the seats had been taken: OCCUPY, use, utilize, fill, hold; reserve, engage; informal bag.
I have taken a room nearby: RENT, lease, hire, charter; reserve, book, engage.
I took the job: ACCEPT, undertake.
I’d take this over the other option: PICK, choose, select; prefer, favour, opt for, plump for, vote for.
take, for instance, the English: CONSIDER, contemplate, ponder, think about, weigh up, mull over, examine, study, meditate over, ruminate about.
he takes ‘The Observer’: SUBSCRIBE TO, buy, read.
she took his temperature: ASCERTAIN, determine, establish, measure, find out, discover; calculate, compute, evaluate, rate, assess, appraise, gauge.
he took notes: WRITE, note (down), jot (down), scribble, scrawl, record, register, document, minute.
I took it back to London: BRING, carry, bear, transport, convey, move, transfer, shift, ferry; informal cart, tote.
he priest took her home: ESCORT, accompany, help, assist, show, lead, guide, see, usher, convey.
he took the train: TRAVEL ON/BY, journey on, go via; use.
the town takes its name from the lake: DERIVE, get, obtain, come by, acquire, pick up.
she took the prize for best speaker: RECEIVE, obtain, gain, get, acquire, collect, accept, be awarded; secure, come by, win, earn, pick up, carry off; informal land, bag, net, scoop.
I took the chance to postpone it: ACT ON, take advantage of, capitalize on, use, exploit, make the most of, leap at, jump at, pounce on, seize, grasp, grab, accept.
he took great pleasure in painting: DERIVE, draw, acquire, obtain, get, gain, extract, procure; experience, undergo, feel.
Liz took the news badly: RECEIVE, respond to, react to, meet, greet; deal with, cope with.
do you take me for a fool?: REGARD AS, consider to be, view as, see as, believe to be, reckon to be, imagine to be, deem to be.
I take it that you are hungry: ASSUME, presume, suppose, imagine, expect, reckon, gather, dare say, trust, surmise, deduce, guess, conjecture, fancy, suspect.
I take your point: UNDERSTAND, grasp, get, comprehend, apprehend, see, follow; accept, appreciate, acknowledge, sympathize with, agree with.
Shirley was rather taken with him: CAPTIVATE, enchant, charm, delight, attract, beguile, enthral, entrance, infatuate, dazzle; amuse, divert, entertain; informal tickle someone’s fancy.
I can’t take much more: ENDURE, bear, tolerate, stand, put up with, abide, stomach, accept, allow, countenance, support, shoulder; formal brook; archaic suffer.
applicants must take a test: CARRY OUT, do, complete, conduct, perform, execute, discharge, accomplish, fulfil.
I took English and French: STUDY, learn, have lessons in; take up, pursue; Brit. read; informal do.
the journey took six hours: LAST, continue for, go on for, carry on for; require, call for, need, necessitate, entail, involve.
it would take an expert to know that: REQUIRE, need, necessitate, demand, call for, entail, involve.
I take size three shoes: WEAR, use; require, need.
the dye did not take: BE EFFECTIVE, take effect, hold, root, be productive, be effectual, be useful; work, operate, succeed, function; formal be efficacious.
he whalers’ commercial take: CATCH, haul, bag, yield, net.
the state’s tax take: REVENUE, income, gain, profit; takings, proceeds, returns, receipts, winnings, pickings, earnings, spoils; purse.
a clapperboard for the start of each take: SCENE, sequence, (film) clip.
a wry take on gender issues: VIEW OF, reading of, version of, interpretation of, understanding of, account of, analysis of, approach to.
نکته مهمی که در این پست بیشتر روی آن تاکید داریم به کاربرد این واژه در نقش فعلی مربوط می شود. در زبان انگلیسی اگر بخواهیم گرفتن چیزی یا کسی به وسیله ی کسی یا چیز دیگری را بیان کنیم باید از حرف اضافه استفاده کنیم. حرف اضافه مورد نیاز برای این منظور by است که برخی به اشتباه از حرف اضافه from استفاده می کنند که باید در مورد این اشتباه رایج باید بسیار دقت کرد. بنابراین:
گرفتن به وسیله ی … :
× Take from
✓ Take by
به چند مثال در این زمینه توجه کنید:
× Robert took his brother from the hand.
✓ Robert took his brother by the hand.
رابرت برادرش را به وسیله دست گرفت.
برای افعال زیر نیز که کاربرد و معنی تقریبا مشابهی با فعل take دارند، از حروف اضافه by استفاده می شود.